Application Virtualization – The UAC Panacea?

2017-07-27T00:01:08+00:00 January 18th, 2012|Uncategorized|

…with contributions from Aaron Gierak, Voltaire Toledo, and Jeremy Pavlov.

The User Account Control (UAC) Challenge

It is commonly known that in XP you have to give end users Administrator privileges in order to do even the most simple routine tasks; like changing the system clock, plugging in a USB drive, running a defrag, updating software, or even running security products.  Of course you can use the RunAs command, but that still requires having an Administrator password – which defeats the security purpose of a limited user account.  And just when we thought moving to Windows 7 would eliminate this security privilege nightmare, enter UAC…

User Account Control (UAC) is a technology aimed to improve the security of Microsoft Windows by limiting application software to standard user privileges until an administrator authorizes an increase or elevation.  In this way, only applications trusted by the user may receive administrative privileges, and malware should be kept from compromising the operating system.  In other words, a user account may have Administrator privileges assigned to it, but the applications that the user runs do not inherit those privileges unless they are approved beforehand, or the user explicitly authorizes it.

It is possible to turn off UAC while installing software, and re-enable it at a later time.  However, this is not recommended since File & Registry Virtualization is only active when UAC is turned on – and if UAC is switched off, user settings and configuration files may be installed to an unintended location (i.e. a system directory rather than a user-specific directory).  Also Internet Explorer 7’s “Protected Mode” – whereby the browser runs in a sandbox with lower privileges than the standard user – relies on UAC; and will not function if UAC is disabled.

The Application Virtualization Question

So is application virtualization the solution?  If a virtualized package runs at the kernel level, does it eliminate having to give an XP user Administrator rights?  When you repackage an application that you have been running in XP – in order to port to Win7 – does the app skate by UAC in a way that allows you to keep UAC turned on?

By default, UAC virtualizes requests for protected resources to provide compatibility with applications not developed for UAC.  This is important because many applications written for Windows XP and earlier operating systems assume that the user has administrative privileges and attempt to write to protected resources such as the Program Files or System folders.  The first time an application makes a change to a virtualized resource, Windows copies the folder or registry key to the location within the user’s profile.  Then, the change is made to the user’s copy of that resource.  UAC virtualization is designed to allow already-installed applications to run successfully with standard user privileges, even if they store temporary files or logs in a protected folder.

Installs, Upgrades, and Updates

Many of the problems with UAC come from application installs or upgrades/updates where a new driver or an action that requires UAC acceptance is needed.  With application virtualization – especially a tool like Symantec’s Workspace Streaming where you package from the kernel level – you can bundle the drivers *inside* the virtual app.  As a result, nothing would ever be required of the end-user since nothing is ever “installed”. 

Secondary Executions

However, another issue that bumps against UAC is what we commonly call the “Secondary Execution Event”, where a loaded executable decides to make a call on its own (outside of the one that the app designer intended).  For instance, if a permitted/intended executable launched, and then it calls out to the manufacturer for an updated version, or the latest driver, that is not pre-bundled in the package.  Examples of this are the Juniper VPN agent or the MS Security Center executable.

Panacea or Pariah?

The good news is that application virtualization absolutely does address UAC and elevation features by isolating areas that normally prevent non-elevated users from writing to them by creating a virtual HKLM registry hive, Windows and Program Files.  Virtualizing applications also mitigates potential conflicts in a shared session environment like Remote Desktop Servers or XenApp.

However, is application virtualization the silver bullet to fix all elevation and UAC issues?  The answer is “it depends”.  If the application explicitly requires elevated privileges within its manifest, then it will always present a UAC prompt.  In addition, if the application attempts to make a system change like a driver installation or some kind of self-updating feature, it will force Windows 7 to prompt you for elevation.  These challenges can be further addressed with tools such as AppSense Application Manager, or Viewfinity Privilege Management (which elevate a user’s privilege on a per-executable basis), or SystemGuard (which can elevate privileges to write to the registry).

The bottom line is that application virtualization brings many advantages.  In addition to extending the life of legacy applications, reducing deployment costs, and reducing user downtime caused by install/uninstall issues and application conflicts, many UAC issues can be mitigated with application virtualization, especially when coupled with effective use of user virtualization tools.

 

Next installment – Application Streaming…

 

Application Strategy in the New Enterprise…

2017-07-27T00:01:08+00:00 December 14th, 2011|Uncategorized|

Why is the right application strategy important?

Whether it is physical or virtual, the endpoint device won’t matter if you can’t get to your data; and it’s through applications that you get to your critical data.  But management of applications can be an administrative burden.  How can you take applications administration to the next level?

 The right application virtualization tool will:

  • Decrease your time to market by 20-40%
  • Decrease your software license spend by 30-50%
  • Reduce or eliminate your need to rewrite legacy applications
  • Allow central management of all your apps
  • Increase Software license management and compliance

For example, in the common case of having to reset a hung application, the average cost of a help desk ticket to reset an app is $345 without an application virtualization tool.  With the proper tool, an app reset can be done in 18 seconds; virtually eliminating that cost.  This has a two-fold benefit – decreased end user downtime, and decreased IT support costs.  But just having a tool to handle these situations does not — by itself — solve all your problems; you must have a strategy.

The right application strategy requires a 3-pronged approach

To arrive at an optimized virtual user-centric experience requires a three-part strategic focus that encompasses the following:

  1. Desktop Strategy
  2. Application Strategy
  3. User Strategy 

Each of these pieces is equally important.  While in some cases you can have an application strategy without a desktop strategy, you should never have a desktop strategy without an application strategy.  From this perspective, it becomes clear that an application strategy can actually be more important than a desktop strategy.  

How it can go wrong

My thoughts based on what I see from a sales and trending perspective:

  • Over time, server virtualization created such a positive ROI for both capex and opex, that it was assumed that desktop virtualization would be another no-brainer to implement.  Companies who have embarked on VDI pilots and initiatives have quickly become disillusioned; realizing that the same efficiencies that were gained at the server level do not necessarily apply at the desktop. Eventually, they are forced to rethink their strategy.
  • Companies that embark on Win7 migrations – and do not take the time to make a strategic decision about how they will manage their applications – may become disillusioned as well, as they are feeling the pain of long cycles to virtualize their applications for a new OS and new endpoint device.  And in addition to the long cycles to prepare the applications, there are the inevitable challenges with legacy apps and conflicting apps.
  • Aging infrastructures and desktop devices create projects driven by choosing an “endpoint strategy” (translated as endpoint device only) where the only thing taken into consideration is the device.  Their whole strategy is around making decisions about thin client, zero client, fat client, etc.; all without thinking about the delivery method or the user profile.

Overall, as companies make strategic decisions about their Virtual Desktop Strategy, there can be tunnel vision about the desktop piece as the only strategic piece, with applications and users being an afterthought.

How to make it right

Herein lies my mission:  To educate those embarking on a VDI initiative about the importance of choosing the right application strategy.

 

Recognition From Symantec

2017-07-27T00:01:08+00:00 November 2nd, 2011|Uncategorized|

Symantec recently posted an item to their Endpoint Virtualization Community Blog, calling attention to a couple very nicely-done instructional videos done by fellow Coretek team member, Jeff Blakely (a.k.a. on YouTube).

Of course, we couldn’t be more proud of this recognition of Jeff’s talent by such a valued partner as Symantec; but we knew it all along.

😉

 Check out the Symantec blog item here:

http://www.symantec.com/connect/blogs/symantec-workspace-virtualization-youtube-videos?om_ext_cid=biz_con_email_2011_oct_26_news_youtube_videos

Thanks Symantec, and thanks Jeff!

Symantec Workspace Streaming / Virtualization Overview

2017-07-27T00:01:08+00:00 May 24th, 2011|Uncategorized|

Understanding Workspace Streaming (SWS)

Symantec Workspace Streaming

Symantec Workspace Streaming is an application streaming solution that enables on-demand application provisioning, offline cache, license recovery and instant application upgrades. Symantec Workspace Streaming increases end user productivity with controlled, guaranteed access to any Windows based applications from any location at any time, including remote and mobile users.

Key Features

  • On-demand application streaming – simplifies OS image management by reducing the number and size of images
  • Dynamic license management – proactively insures license compliance by avoiding over-deployment and optimize software costs by re-harvesting licenses when they expire or after a period of disuse
  • Single-click application upgrades – upgrade and patch applications quickly and painlessly, or roll back applications to the previous version if required
  • Disconnected Usage Capability

Key Benefits

  • Reduce software license costs
  • Simplify Application delivery
  • Reduce application support costs/disruption
  • Improve utilization of existing hardware and software resources

 

Symantec Workspace Virtualization

Symantec Workspace Virtualization provides application virtualization that helps reduce application conflicts, testing requirements and support calls. Symantec Workspace Virtualization helps IT organizations improve management and control over endpoints to reduce the total cost of ownership of laptops and desktops.

Key Features

  • Virtual application layers – patented filter driver technology enables virtual layers that are transparent to the base operating system and other applications
  • Selective isolation – provides a solution for incompatible Windows 7 apps and insures system and application compatibility under any circumstance
  • Endpoint Management integration – Workspace Virtualization is a standard component of Symantec’s Client Management Suite (CMS), Total Management Suite (TMS), Symantec Workspace Streaming (SWS), Software Management Solution

Key Benefits

  • Eliminate conflicts between applications and base operating system, such as incompatible Windows 7 applications
  • Reduce application pre-deployment testing requirements
  • Provide instant reset for broken applications

Citrix XenClient – What is XenClient?

2017-07-27T00:01:08+00:00 December 8th, 2010|Uncategorized|

What is Citrix XenClient?

Virtual desktops… to go

XenClient is a client-side hypervisor that enables virtual desktops to run directly on client devices. By separating the operating system from the underlying hardware, desktop images can now be created, secured, deployed and moved across any supported hardware, greatly reducing the maintenance burden on IT and simplifying disaster recovery for laptop users. Optimized for Intel vPro XenClient delivers the high definition experience that users expect.

XenClient Video

Learn how XenClient can bring security performance and flexibility to both IT and your laptop users extending the benefits of desktop virtualization to users that need to work from anywhere at anytime.

Citrix XenDesktop

2017-07-27T00:01:08+00:00 December 8th, 2010|Uncategorized|

What is Citrix XenDesktop?

Citrix XenDesktop transforms Windows desktops into an on-demand service that can be accessed by any user, on any device, anywhere, with unparalleled simplicity and scalability. Whether workers are using the latest tablets, smartphones, laptops or thin clients, XenDesktop can quickly and securely deliver virtual desktops and applications to them with a high-definition user experience.

Why use XenDesktop to transform your desktop computing environment?

Innovative technologies in XenDesktop enable you to turn your vision for a more flexible, mobile and agile desktop computing environment into a reality.

Citrix Receiver, a lightweight universal client, enables any PC, Mac, smartphone, tablet or thin client to access corporate applications and desktops—easily and securely.

Citrix HDX technology delivers a rich, complete user experience that rivals a local PC, from optimized graphics and multimedia, to high-definition webcam, broad USB device support and high-speed printing.

Going far beyond the limitations of VDI-only solutions, Citrix FlexCast delivery technology gives each type of worker in your enterprise the virtual desktop that’s right for them—hosted or local, online or offline, standardized or personalized—through a single solution.

Members of your workforce can access any Windows, web or SaaS application on demand through a single interface. Simple, self-service provisioning reduces desktop management costs and complexity.

Built on an open, scalable, proven architecture, XenDesktop gives you the simplicity, flexibility and scalability to meet any requirement, while fully leveraging current and future investments.

XenDesktop Video

Citrix XenApp 6 Sets New Standard in On-Demand App Delivery for Physical and Virtual Desktops

2017-07-27T00:01:09+00:00 September 10th, 2010|Uncategorized|

citrix_logoCitrix Systems, Inc. announced Citrix® XenApp™ 6, the de facto standard for centralizing applications in the datacenter and delivering them as an on-demand service to both physical and virtual desktops. XenApp 6 offers major new enhancements that simplify computing for IT, including easier central management, enhanced enterprise scalability and seamless integration with Microsoft technologies like App-V and Windows Server 2008 R2. XenApp 6 also improves productivity for end users with extensive new high-definition HDX™ technology enhancements and simplified self-service access to apps from any device, including PCs, Macs, laptops and smart phones.

The new enhancements to XenApp 6 will also be available as an integrated feature of the company’s comprehensive desktop virtualization solution, Citrix XenDesktop™ 4. Mainstream adoption of desktop virtualization requires a proven, scalable solution with the ability to deliver any type of virtual desktop to any user on any device, and to be able to interchange delivery technologies at any time. With more than half the ROI of virtual desktops coming from centralized app management, this integration provides an unparalleled advantage over any other desktop virtualization solution on the market today. This powerful combination makes it easy for customers to deliver apps as an on-demand service to any user, on any device, across a broad range of both physical and virtual desktops.


Bill Burley, Group Vice President and General Manager, XenApp Product Group at Citrix

“Citrix XenApp 6 delivers an entirely new level of IT simplification and user experience that goes beyond anything we’ve ever done with XenApp. The new simplified management capabilities and increased scalability reduce the cost of application management by up to 50 percent for both physical and virtual desktop environments. Combined with Citrix Dazzle, the self-service enterprise app store, and broad new support for Macs, laptops and smart phones with Citrix Receiver, customers can now deliver apps as an on-demand service to any user in any location at a fraction of the cost of traditional application management.”

Garth Fort, General Manager of System Center Marketing, Server and Tools Business at Microsoft Corp.  

“With support for Windows Server 2008 R2 in XenApp 6 and new integration with Citrix XenApp and Microsoft App-V, we are providing increasing value to our customers and delivering a simplified yet powerful application delivery infrastructure. Customers can leverage their existing investment in Microsoft solutions while continuing to expand their ability to deliver applications on-demand.”

Key Facts and Highlights:

  • Simplified Management – XenApp 6 dramatically simplifies desktop computing with AppCenter™, a powerful new management console that makes it easy for IT to centrally manage all applications enterprise-wide from a single location.
  • Unparalleled Scalability – XenApp 6 has been verified to scale up to more than 100,000 concurrent users in a single farm, giving customers unprecedented levels of cost savings and datacenter efficiency.
  • Expanded Microsoft Integration – Seamless integration between XenApp 6 and Microsoft App-V makes it easy for customers to centrally manage applications using whatever mix of local and hosted solutions best fit their unique requirements. XenApp 6 also includes full support for Microsoft Windows Server 2008 R2, adding a broad range of platform enhancements including simplified provisioning, easier automation, and more efficient power consumption.
  • Self-Service Apps – Through its integration with Citrix Dazzle™, XenApp 6 gives users an entirely new level of flexibility and mobility, allowing them to choose the apps they need on-demand, without costly manual IT support. Apps available to users through the Dazzle “storefront” can include those delivered by XenApp or Microsoft App-V, as well as IT supported SaaS or web applications.
  • Mac and Smart Phone Support – In addition to supporting PCs, thin clients and laptops, XenApp 6 now makes it easy for users to access Windows apps from Macs and popular smart phones such as Apple iPhone, Google Android and Windows Mobile.
  • Enhanced High-Definition HDX™ Technology – XenApp 6 includes broad new HDX technology enhancements that allow customers to deliver real-time media applications like voice and CD-quality audio with a rich, high-definition user experience. New HDX enhancements in XenApp 6 also expand support for a broad range of USB devices, including webcams, microphones, digital cameras and scanners.

Video: Highlights of XenApp 6
Pricing and Availability:

The new XenApp 6 release will be available for download beginning on March 24, 2010, and will be offered as a free upgrade to all XenApp customers with current Subscription Advantage agreements. Suggested list pricing for new licenses of XenApp 6 will begin at $350 per concurrent user. More information on the new features in XenApp 6 can be found at http://www.citrix.com/xenapp6.

XenApp 6 will also be included as an integrated feature of the company’s broader XenDesktop 4 product line, which is available to customers at a suggested list price beginning at $225 per-user or per-device.

Related Announcements:

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About Citrix
Citrix Systems, Inc. (NASDAQ:CTXS) is a leading provider of virtualization, networking and cloud computing solutions for more than 230,000 organizations worldwide. Its Citrix Delivery Center™, Citrix Cloud Center™ (C3) and Citrix Online product families radically simplify computing for millions of users, delivering desktops and applications as an on-demand service to any user, in any location on any device. Citrix customers include the world’s largest Internet companies, 99 percent of Fortune Global 500 enterprises, and hundreds of thousands of small businesses and prosumers worldwide. Citrix partners with over 10,000 companies worldwide in more than 100 countries. Founded in 1989, annual revenue in 2009 was $1.61 billion.

For Citrix Investors
This release contains forward-looking statements which are made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.  The forward-looking statements in this release do not constitute guarantees of future performance.  Those statements involve a number of factors that could cause actual results to differ materially, including risks associated with revenue growth and recognition of revenue, products, their development and distribution, product demand and pipeline, economic and competitive factors, the Company’s key strategic relationships, acquisition and related integration risks as well as other risks detailed in the Company’s filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission. Citrix assumes no obligation to update any forward-looking information contained in this press release or with respect to the announcements described herein.

The development, release and timing of any features or functionality described for our products remains at our sole discretion and is subject to change without notice or consultation. The information provided is for informational purposes only and is not a commitment, promise or legal obligation to deliver any material, code or functionality and should not be relied upon in making purchasing decisions or incorporated into any contract.

Source: Citrix

Virtual Servers, Real Growth

2017-07-27T00:01:09+00:00 July 12th, 2010|Uncategorized|

 

If you follow tech industry trends, you’ve probably heard of cloud computing, an increasingly popular approach of delivering technology resources over the Internet rather than from on-site computer systems.

Chances are, you’re less familiar with virtualization — the obscure software that makes it all possible.

The concept is simple: rather than having computers run a single business application — and sit idle most of the time — virtualization software divides a system into several “virtual” machines, all running software in parallel.

The technology not only squeezes more work out of each computer, but makes large systems much more flexible, letting data-center techies easily deploy computing horsepower where it’s needed at a moment’s notice.

The approach cuts costs, reducing the amount of hardware, space and energy needed to power up large data centers. Maintaining these flexible systems is easier, too, because managing software and hardware centrally requires less tech support.

The benefits of virtualization have made cloud computing an economical alternative to traditional data centers.

“Without virtualization, there is no cloud,” said Charles King, principal analyst of Pund-IT.

That’s transforming the technology industry and boosting the fortunes of virtualization pioneers such as VMware (NYSE:VMW – News), Citrix Systems (NMS:CTXS), two of the best-performing stocks in IBD’s specialty enterprise software group. As of Friday, the group ranked No. 24 among IBD’s 197 Industry Groups, up from No. 121 three months ago.

1. Business

Specialty enterprise software represents a small but fast-growing segment of the overall software enterprise market, which according to market research firm Gartner is set to hit $229 billion this year.

As with most software, the segment is a high-margin business. With high upfront development costs but negligible manufacturing and distribution expenses, specialty software companies strive for mass-market appeal. Once developers recoup their initial development costs, additional sales represent pure profit.

Software developers also make money helping customers install and run their software, another high-margin business.

But competition is fierce. Unlike capital-intensive businesses, software companies require no factory, heavy equipment, storefront or inventory to launch. Low barriers to entry mean a constant stream of new competitors looking to out-innovate incumbents.

In addition to the virtualization firms, notable names in the group include CA Technologies (NMS:CA) and Compuware (NMS:CPWR).

All offer infrastructure software to manage data centers.

“Big-iron” mainframe computers began using virtualization in the 1970s, around the time when CA and Compuware were founded.

In the late 1990s, VMware brought the technology to low-cost systems running ordinary Intel (NMS:INTC) chips. VMware has since emerged as the dominant player in virtualization.

Citrix has added a twist to the concept, virtualizing desktop computers. Rather than installing workers’ operating system and applications on hundreds of PCs spread across the globe, companies can use the technology to run PCs from a bank of central servers. Workers, who access their virtual PCs over the Internet, don’t know the difference.

Microsoft (NMS:MSFT) has jumped in with its own virtualization product, HyperV, which it bundles free into Windows Server software packages. Oracle (NMS:ORCL) and Red Hat (NYSE:RHT – News) have launched virtualization products as well.

Meanwhile, CA and Compuware are racing to move beyond their mainframe roots to support virtualization and cloud-computing-enabled data centers. In February, CA said it would buy 3Tera to build services and deploy applications aimed at the cloud-computing market.

And Compuware bought privately held Gomez, Inc. last fall to manage cloud application performance.

Name Of The Game: Innovate. With a fast-moving market and steady influx of new competitors, keeping customers happy with good service and money-saving breakthroughs is vital.

2. Market

Nearly everyone who runs a corporate computer system is a potential buyer of virtualization software. Companies ramping up their information-technology purchases use the software to manage their sprawling infrastructure; others with limited budgets use it to squeeze more out of their existing systems.

Sales of server-virtualization software are set to grow 14% this year to $1.28 billion, according to a report by Lazard Capital Markets. Sales of software to manage virtual environments will grow 44% in 2010 to $1.88 billion.

Desktop virtualization revenue will rise 184% this year to $847.8 million. Citrix has the edge in this budding market with its XenDesktop product.

VMware is dominant among large enterprises, controlling about 85% of the server virtualization market. Microsoft is favored by small and midsize companies.

Virtualization is seen as “a strategic asset” for enabling cloud computing, and continues to gain momentum, says Lazard analyst Joel Fishbein.

VMware has the early-mover advantage in this market with its vSphere platform and has stayed ahead by adding new features such as data security and disaster recovery, analysts say.

But Citrix is partnering closely with Microsoft to take on VMware in virtualization.

3. Climate

Competition is heating up as companies scramble to adopt virtualization. Before 2009, just 30% of companies used virtualization, says analyst Fishbein. This year, that will double to 60%. Most of the gain is coming from small and midsize customers.

In addition, virtual servers are soon expected to more than double as a percentage of the overall server workload, from 18% today to 48% by 2012.

VMware says it can stay a step ahead of the pack by building new features into its products, says Dan Chu, VMware’s vice president of cloud infrastructure and services.

“We have a large technology lead with what we enable for our customers,” Chu said. “We are several years ahead of what the others are doing.”

Citrix CEO Mark Templeton says his firm’s broadening strategy — offering a variety of products with multiple licensing options and distribution channels — will grow sales.

“What’s going on is a massive shift in how computing gets delivered,” Templeton said. “In an environment that’s changing so dramatically, the highest-risk thing you can do is not act.”

4. Technology

The first virtualization boom stemmed from a shift over the last decade away from big expensive mainframes and minicomputers to massive banks of cheap Intel-powered machines. Virtualization gave these low-cost systems some of the high-end features of their pricier counterparts.

Virtualization software makers are betting on a second wave of growth fueled by the industrywide shift to cloud computing.

Technology managers use virtualization to run cloud computing in their own data centers. And large tech vendors such as Microsoft use the technology for cloud-computing services they sell to customers.

Dividing computers into isolated virtual machines gives cloud service providers the benefits of shared computing resources without the security downsides.

VMware has the early lead in virtualization. But the technology is quickly becoming a commodity as Microsoft and others bundle it into their broader platforms.

“VMware is known as a virtualization company, and Microsoft is a platform company,” said David Greschler, who heads up Microsoft’s virtualization efforts. “Their strategy is to sell virtualization, but our strategy is to make virtualization available as part of a larger platform at no extra cost.”

At the same time, a shift toward a world of cloud-computing services hosted by the likes of Microsoft, Amazon.com (NMS:AMZN) and Google (NMS:GOOG) could lead to fewer companies purchasing virtualization software themselves.

Source: Investor’s Business Daily

VDI Performance Acceleration – Atlantis Computing’s ILIO

2017-07-27T00:01:11+00:00 June 21st, 2010|Uncategorized|

VDI platforms use shared storage located centrally for VDI desktop images. However, Windows operating systems were designed to operate with a low latency dedicated local disk for every desktop. The Microsoft Windows family of operating systems is dependent on performing input/output (IO) intensive tasks such as file layout optimization, background defragmentation, antivirus scanning and virtual memory paging. However, in a VDI environment, these tasks result in placing a heavy tax on shared storage infrastructure as each user, application and desktop compete for limited IO capacity (measured in input/output per second-IOPS). Without adequate storage IOPS, applications and virtual machines take longer to boot and applications respond sluggishly, leaving users frustrated.

Atlantis ILIO is a revolutionary approach to deploying VDI that makes the Windows operating system perform well without massive investments in storage infrastructure. Atlantis ILIO boosts VDI desktop performance by transparently offloading IO intensive Windows operations from VDI shared storage. ILIO terminates operating system and application traffic on the same rack as the VDI servers before traffic hits the storage fabric. The result is a 10x performance increase for VDI desktops, which translates into faster VM boot times, logon, and overall application performance. Atlantis ILIO also eliminates VDI IO bottlenecks caused by boot storms, logon storms and antivirus scanning.

Source: Atlantis Computing

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